FAA tower closures
Due to the sequestration. The FAA will stop funding for 149 contract control towers in three phases that did not meet the national interest screening criteria. Phase 1 originally scheduled for April 7 is now scheduled for 1 September, and the date for the remaining 2 phases is not known at this time.
“If your airport is one of those affected, Questions can be be emailed to FCTTransition@faa.gov.
When the FAA ceases funding for control tower operations, the airport operator has a choice. The airport operator may choose to operate as a non-towered airport. The airport operator may also choose to continue providing tower services as a non-federal control tower. The decision made by the airport operator will most likely affect what happens with the existing tower structure and the equipment inside.
What happens after a tower closure? Any towered airport has a variety of items to consider when their tower closes.
- Frequencies – Closure of the tower does not inhibit the availability of a common traffic frequency which is used by pilots to operate at non-towered airports. The FAA will work with airports to ensure a common traffic frequency is available, along with any other communications capabilities that may be necessary (e.g., ASOS, ATIS, ETC.)
- Pilot-Activated Lights – In many instances, airports already have pilot-controlled lighting available since the vast majority of contract control towers close overnight. In the event the capability is not present, then alternative procedures may be used (e.g., leave lights on). Airports can work with their Airport District Offices to explore federal funding possibilities, through the Airport Improvement Program (AIP), for pilot controlled lighting capabilities.
- Weather Observation – Airports have many different types of weather reporting capabilities available to them. Airports may choose to acquire Contract Weather Observers or use Automated weather reporting systems (ASOS, AWOS, etc.) if they are available. The availability of weather information is a critical requirement for air carrier operations to arrive/depart at the airport. The FAA will work with airports, through reimbursable agreements, to ensure the desired level of weather reporting capabilities is available.
The Ohio State and Bolton towers are on the closure list, the closure date is not known at this time. The wing has recently based an aircraft at OSU. Aircrews operating from that airport are urged to become familiar with the taxi diagrams and have one available for taxi. OSU is very active airport with a mixture of aircraft including jets so be alert.
Spring is the true beginning of the aviator’s year. In our part of the country the weather is changing to longer days and warmer temperatures, which means chances for severe weather like high wind, thunderstorms and tornadoes
I encourage each of you to review your weather briefing procedures, wheather they be from FSS of other electronic self briefing sources.
Be alert, review and practice your crosswind take off and landing procedures.
FAA wings program is the FAA’s recurrent training program for general aviation pilots. It allows pilots an alternative method of meeting the flight review requirments of FAR 61.56.
After you earn enough credits to complete a phase of wings, your flight review date can be updated 1 year. I encourage the pilots to participate in the Wings Program.
The March safety briefing contains images that are helpful to reference, so the briefing is attached as a PDF along with the text below:
Everything Rides On It
Studies of tire safety show that maintaining proper tire pressure, observing tire and vehicle load limits (not carrying more weight in your vehicle than your tires or vehicle can safely handle), avoiding road hazards, and inspecting tires for cuts, slashes, and other irregularities are the most important things you can do to avoid tire failure, such as tread separation or blowout and flat tires. These actions, along with other care and maintenance activities, can also:
• Improve vehicle handling
• Help protect you and others from avoidable breakdowns and accidents
• Improve fuel economy
• Increase the life of your tires.
• Basic tire maintenance
• Uniform Tire Quality Grading System
• Fundamental characteristics of tires
• Tire safety tips.
Use this information to make tire safety a regular part of your vehicle maintenance routine. Recognize that the time you spend is minimal compared with the inconvenience and safety consequences of a flat tire or other tire failure.
Safety First–Basic Tire Maintenance
Properly maintained tires improve the steering, stopping, traction, and load-carrying capability of your vehicle. Underinflated tires and overloaded vehicles are a major cause of tire failure. Therefore, as mentioned above, to avoid flat tires and other types of tire failure, you should maintain proper tire pressure, observe tire and vehicle load limits, avoid road hazards, and regularly inspect your tires.
Finding Your Vehicle's Recommended Tire Pressure and Load Limits
Tire information placards and vehicle certification labels contain information on tires and load limits. These labels indicate the vehicle manufacturer's information including:
• Recommended tire size
• Recommended tire inflation pressure
• Vehicle capacity weight (VCW–the maximum occupant and cargo weight a vehicle is designed to carry)
• Front and rear gross axle weight ratings (GAWR– the maximum weight the axle systems are designed to carry).
Both placards and certification labels are permanently attached to the vehicle door edge, door post, glove-box door, or inside of the trunk lid. You can also find the recommended tire pressure and load limit for your vehicle in the vehicle owner's manual.
Understanding Tire Pressure and Load Limits
Tire inflation pressure is the level of air in the tire that provides it with load-carrying capacity and affects the overall performance of the vehicle. The tire inflation pressure is a number that indicates the amount of air pressure– measured in pounds per square inch (psi)–a tire requires to be properly inflated. Manufacturers of passenger vehicles and light trucks determine this number based on the vehicle's design load limit, that is, the greatest amount of weight a vehicle can safely carry and the vehicle's tire size. The proper tire pressure for your vehicle is referred to as the "recommended cold inflation pressure." (As you will read below, it is difficult to obtain the recommended tire pressure if your tires are not cold.)
Because tires are designed to be used on more than one type of vehicle, tire manufacturers list the "maximum permissible inflation pressure" on the tire sidewall. This number is the greatest amount of air pressure that should ever be put in the tire under normal driving conditions.
Checking Tire Pressure
It is important to check your vehicle's tire pressure at least once a month for the following reasons:
Most tires may naturally lose air over time.
Tires can lose air suddenly if you drive over a pothole or other object or if you strike the curb when parking.
With radial tires, it is usually not possible to determine under inflation by visual inspection.
For convenience, purchase a tire pressure gauge to keep in your vehicle. Gauges can be purchased at tire dealerships, auto supply stores, and other retail outlets.
The recommended tire inflation pressure that vehicle manufacturers provide reflects the proper psi when a tire is cold. The term cold does not relate to the outside temperature. Rather, a cold tire is one that has not been driven on for at least three hours. When you drive, your tires get warmer, causing the air pressure within them to increase. Therefore, to get an accurate tire pressure reading, you must measure tire pressure when the tires are cold or compensate for the extra pressure in warm tires.
Steps for Maintaining Proper Tire Pressure
• Step 1: Locate the recommended tire pressure on the vehicle's tire information placard, certification label, or in the owner's manual.
• Step 2: Record the tire pressure of all tires.
• Step 3: If the tire pressure is too high in any of the tires, slowly release air by gently pressing on the tire valve stem with the edge of your tire gauge until you get to the correct pressure.
• Step 4: If the tire pressure is too low, note the difference between the measured tire pressure and the correct tire pressure. These "missing" pounds of pressure are what you will need to add.
• Step 5: At a service station, add the missing pounds of air pressure to each tire that is underinflated.
• Step 6: Check all the tires to make sure they have the same air pressure (except in cases in which the front and rear tires are supposed to have different amounts of pressure).
If you have been driving your vehicle and think that a tire is underinflated, fill it to the recommended cold inflation pressure indicated on your vehicle's tire information placard or certification label. While your tire may still be slightly underinflated due to the extra pounds of pressure in the warm tire, it is safer to drive with air pressure that is slightly lower than the vehicle manufacturer's recommended cold inflation pressure than to drive with a significantly underinflated tire. Since this is a temporary fix, don't forget to recheck and adjust the tire's pressure when you can obtain a cold reading.
To maintain tire safety, purchase new tires that are the same size as the vehicle's original tires or another size recommended by the manufacturer. Look at the tire information placard, the owner's manual, or the sidewall of the tire you are replacing to find this information. If you have any doubt about the correct size to choose, consult with the tire dealer.
The tire tread provides the gripping action and traction that prevent your vehicle from slipping or sliding, especially when the road is wet or icy. In general, tires are not safe and should be replaced when the tread is worn down to 1/16 of an inch. Tires have built-in tread wear indicators that let you know when it is time to replace your tires. These indicators are raised sections spaced intermittently in the bottom of the tread grooves. When they appear "even" with the outside of the tread, it is time to replace your tires. Another method for checking tread depth is to place a penny in the tread with Lincoln's head upside down and facing you. If you can see the top of Lincoln's head, you are ready for new tires.
Tire Balance and Wheel Alignment
To avoid vibration or shaking of the vehicle when a tire rotates, the tire must be properly balanced. This balance is achieved by positioning weights on the wheel to counterbalance heavy spots on the wheel-and-tire assembly. A wheel alignment adjusts the angles of the wheels so that they are positioned correctly relative to the vehicle's frame. This adjustment maximizes the life of your tires and prevents your car from veering to the right or left when driving on a straight, level road. These adjustments require special equipment and should be performed by a qualified technician.
Rotating tires from front to back and from side to side can reduce irregular wear (for vehicles that have tires that are all the same size). Look in your owner's manual for information on how frequently the tires on your vehicle should be rotated and the best pattern for rotation.
For maximum mileage, rotate your tires every 5,000 miles
Uniform Tire Quality Grading System (UTQGS)
To help consumers compare a passenger car tire's tread wear rate, traction performance, and temperature resistance, the federal government requires tire manufacturers to grade tires in these three areas. This grading system, known as the Uniform Tire Quality Grading System, provides guidelines for making relative comparisons when purchasing new tires. You also can use this information to inquire about the quality of tires placed on new vehicles.
Although this rating system is very helpful when buying new tires, it is not a safety rating or guarantee of how well a tire will perform or how long it will last. Other factors such as personal driving style, type of car, quality of the roads, and tire maintenance habits have a significant influence on your tire's performance and longevity.
Tread wear grades are an indication of a tire's relative wear rate. The higher the tread wear number is, the longer it should take for the tread to wear down. For example, a tire grade of 400 should wear twice as long as a tire grade of 200.
Traction grades are an indication of a tire's ability to stop on wet pavement. A higher graded tire should allow you to stop your car on wet roads in a shorter distance than a tire with a lower grade. Traction is graded from highest to lowest as "AA", "A", "B", and "C".
Temperature grades are an indication of a tire's resistance to heat. Sustained high temperature (for example, driving long distances in hot weather), can cause a tire to deteriorate, leading to blowouts and tread separation. From highest to lowest, a tire's resistance to heat is graded as "A", "B", or "C".
Federal law requires tire manufacturers to place standardized information on the sidewall of all tires. This information identifies and describes the fundamental characteristics of the tire and also provides a tire identification number for safety standard certification and in case of a recall.
Information on Passenger Vehicle Tires
Please refer to the diagram below.
The "P" indicates the tire is for passenger vehicles.
This 3 digit number gives the width in millimeters of the tire from sidewall edge to sidewall edge. In general the larger the number the wider the tire.
This 2 digit number known as the aspect ratio, gives the tire's ratio of height to width. Numbers of 70 or lower indicate a short sidewall for improved steering response and better overall handling on dry pavement.
The "R" stands for radial. Radial ply construction of tires has been the industry standard for the past 20 years.
This 2 digit number is the wheel or rim diameter in inches. If you change your wheel size, you will have to purchase new tires to match the new wheel diameter.
This 2 or 3 digit number is the tire's load index. It is a measurement of how much weight each tire can support. You may find this information in your owner's manual. If not, contact a local tire dealer. Note: You may not find this information on all tires because it is not required by law.
The "M+S" or "M/S" indicates that the tire has some mud and snow capability. Most radial tires have these markings hence they have some mud and snow capability.
U.S. DOT Tire Identification Number
This begins with the letters "DOT" and indicates that the tire meets all federal standards. The next two numbers or letters are the plant code where it was manufactured, and the last four numbers represent the week and year the tire was built. For example, the numbers 3197 means the 31st week of 1997. The other numbers are marketing codes used at the manufacturer's discretion. This information is used to contact consumers if a tire defect requires a recall.
Tire Ply Composition and Materials Used
The number of plies indicates the number of layers of rubber-coated fabric in the tire. In general, the greater the number of plies, the more weight a tire can support. Tire manufacturers also must indicate the materials in the tire, which include steel, nylon, polyester, and others.
Maximum Load Rating
This number indicates the maximum load in kilograms and pounds that can be carried by the tire.
Maximum Permissible Inflation Pressure
This number is the greatest amount of air pressure that should ever be put in the tire under normal driving conditions.
This number indicates the tire's wear rate. The higher the tread wear number is the longer it should take for the tread to wear down. For example a tire graded 400 should last twice as long as a tire graded 200.
This letter indicates a tire's ability to stop on wet pavement. A higher graded tire should allow you to stop your car on wet roads in a shorter distance than a tire with a lower grade. Traction is graded from highest to lowest as "AA","A", "B", and "C".
This letter indicates a tire's resistance to heat. The temperature grade is for a tire that is inflated properly and not overloaded. Excessive speed, under inflation or excessive loading, either separately or in combination, can cause heat build-up and possible tire failure. From highest to lowest, a tire's resistance to heat is graded as "A", "B", or "C".
1. CHECK-OUT. Plan Ahead so that you never attempt to exercise the privilege of your
pilot certificate in any aircraft unless checked out by a well qualified instructor, at least
(a) one-hour ground familiarization with all controls/systems and operating limits
(b) 8 regular take-offs and landings
(c) 2 cross-wind take-offs and landings
(d) 2 short field takes-offs and landings
2. PRE-FLIGHT. Plan ahead so you never start the engine until:
(a) You have checked weight and balance data
(b) You have ensured any objects carried in the cabin are properly secured and free of the controls
(c) Completed walk-around preflight inspection
(d) Double checked fuel quantity, including legal reserves
(e) Fuel contamination checked from all tank drains
3. VIGILANCE. Plan ahead so you never occupy any area on the ground or in the air
without double checking for possible existing or potential hazards
4. CONTROLS and SYSTEMS.
(a) Only operate an aircraft when fully familiar with operation and correct use of all controls and systems5. WEATHER.
(b) Never start engine or commence other operations until all prescribed procedures are
completed from "memorized" checklist, then double checked against written checklist
(c) Never operate an aircraft with a known malfunction. If malfunction occurs in flight land at nearest airport
(d) Never raise flaps after landing until well clear of active
(e) Always be alert for formation of carburetor ice, and use "carb heat" at first sign of icing.
(a) Study enroute forecast, enroute conditions, and plan escape route to good weather
(b) Never lose good ground reference when below low ceiling or poor visibility
(c) Never risk I.F.R. weather unless you are rated and current IFR pilot in IFR plane
6. SPEED/STALL CONTROL. Plan ahead so you never abruptly change attitude of aircraft nor allow airspeed to drop below:
(a) At least 160% of stall speed when maneuvering below 1000 feet
(b) At least 140% of stall speed during straight approach or climb out
(c) At least 120% of stall speed over threshold and ready for touchdown
(a) Reach destination one hour before sunset unless qualified and prepared for night flight
(b) Never operate at an altitude less than 500 feet above highest obstruction (2000 feet in mountain areas) except on straight climb from take-off or straight in approach to landing
(c) Predetermine "ETA" over all check points. If lost never deviate from original course until oriented. Always hold chart so that plotted course coincides with flight path
(d) Divert to nearest airport if periodic fuel check indicates you won't have 45 minutes
reserve at destination
8. TAKE-OFF or LANDING AREA.
(a) Never take off or land unless on designated airports with known, current runway
(b) Restrict operations to runway length equal to plane manufacturer's published take-off or landing distance plus 80% safety margin (hard surface), 100% margin (if sod) and 300% safety margin (if wet grass or ice)
(c) At night never operate except on well-lighted runways, and then use steeper
approach/take-off attitude to clear unlighted obstacles
9. TAKE-OFF or LANDING LIMITS.
(a) Always plan touchdown 200 feet inside of runway threshold
(b) Abort take-off if not solidly airborne in first half of runway
(c) Abort landing if not solidly "on" in first half of runway (1/4 if wet grass)
10. WIND LIMITS.
(a) Never attempt taxiing in cross winds or gusts exceeding 50% of stall speed unless
outside assistance is available and used. Taxi very slowly when winds exceed 30% above stall speed.
(b) Never taxi closer than 1,000 feet from "blast" end of powerful aircraft, and then only
when headed into remaining blast effect
(c) Never get close to powerful aircraft on take-off, in air, or landing without allowing time for turbulence to subside--at least 2 minutes for heavier jets
11. PHYSICAL CONDITION.
(a) No alcohol ("twelve hours bottle to throttle” [ 24 hours if "big bottle"]
(b) Don't fly if extremely fatigued
(c) Don't fly if taking tranquilizing or sleep inducing drugs
(d) Don't fly if hypoxic from oversmoking or operating above 10,000 feet without oxygen
(e) Don't fly if emotionally upset.
l2. STARTING ENGINE.
Never, never attempt to hand-start an aircraft unless qualified person is at the controls
The best advice for driving in bad winter weather is not to drive at all, if you can avoid it. Don't go out until the snow plows and salt trucks have had a chance to do their work, and allow yourself extra time to reach your destination. If you must drive in snowy conditions, make sure your car is prepared and that you know how to handle road conditions. It's helpful to practice winter driving techniques in a snowy, open parking lot, so you're familiar with how your car handles if it is new to you or to just refresh your driving skills. Always consult your owner's manual for tips specific to your vehicle.
Driving safely on icy roads
1. Decrease your speed and leave yourself plenty of room to stop. You should allow at least three times
more space than usual between you and the car in front of you.
2. Brake gently to avoid skidding. If your wheels start to lock up, ease off the brake.
3. Turn on your lights to increase your visibility to other motorists.
4. Keep your lights and windshield clean.
5. Use low gears to keep traction, especially on hills.
6. Don't use cruise control or overdrive on icy roads.
7. Be especially careful on bridges, overpasses and infrequently traveled roads, which will freeze first. Even
at temperatures above freezing, if the conditions are wet, you might encounter ice in shady areas or on
exposed roadways like bridges.
8. Don't pass snow plows and sanding trucks. The drivers have limited visibility, and you're likely to find the
road in front of them worse than the road behind.
9. Don't assume your vehicle can handle all conditions. Even four-wheel and front-wheel drive vehicles can
encounter trouble on winter roads.
If your rear wheels skid
1. Take your foot off the accelerator.
2. Steer in the direction you want the front wheels to go. If your rear wheels are sliding left, steer left. If
they're sliding right, steer right.
3. If your rear wheels start sliding the other way as you recover, ease the steering wheel toward that side.
You might have to steer left and right a few times to get your vehicle completely under control.
4. If you have standard brakes, pump them gently.
5. If you have anti-lock brakes (ABS), do not pump the brakes. Apply steady pressure to the brakes.
You will feel the brakes pulse — this is normal.
If your front wheels skid
1. Take your foot off the gas and shift to neutral, but don't try to steer immediately.
2. As the wheels skid sideways, they will slow the vehicle and traction will return. As it does, steer in
the direction you want to go. Then put the transmission in "drive" or release the clutch, and accelerate gently.
If you get stuck
1. Do not spin your wheels. This will only dig you in deeper.
2. Turn your wheels from side to side a few times to push snow out of the way.
3. Use a light touch on the gas, to ease your car out.
4. Use a shovel to clear snow away from the wheels and the underside of the car.
5. Pour sand, kitty litter, gravel or salt in the path of the wheels, to help get traction.
6. Try rocking the vehicle. (Check your owner's manual first — it can damage the transmission on some
vehicles.) Shift from forward to reverse, and back again. Each time you're in gear, give a light touch
on the gas until the vehicle gets going.
Winterize Your Car
Driving in the winter means snow, sleet and ice that can lead to slower traffic, hazardous road conditions, hot tempers and unforeseen dangers.
At any temperature -- 20° Fahrenheit below zero or 90° Fahrenheit above -- weather affects road and driving conditions and can pose serious problems. It is important to monitor forecasts on the Web, radio, TV, cable weather channel, or in the daily papers.
An emergency situation on the road can arise at any time and you must be prepared. In addition to making sure you have a full tank of gas, and fresh anti-freeze, you should carry the following items in your trunk:
• Properly inflated spare tire, wheel wrench and tripod-type jack
• Jumper cables
• Tow and tire chains
• Bag of salt or cat litter
• Tool kit
Be prepared with a "survival kit" that should always remain in the car. Replenish after use. Essential supplies include:
• Working flashlight and extra batteries
• Reflective triangles and brightly-colored cloth
• First aid kit
• Exterior windshield cleaner
• Ice scraper and snow brush
• Wooden stick matches in a waterproof container
• Scissors and string/cord
• Non-perishable, high-energy foods like unsalted canned nuts, dried fruits, and hard candy.
In addition, if you are driving long distances under cold, snowy, and icy conditions, you should also carry supplies to keep you warm such as heavy woolen mittens, socks, a cap and blankets.
If You Become Stranded...
• Do not leave your car unless you know exactly where you are, how far it is to possible help, and are certain
you will improve your situation.
• To attract attention, light two flares and place one at each end of the car a safe distance away. Hang a
brightly colored cloth from your antenna.
• If you are sure the car's exhaust pipe is not blocked, run the engine and heater for about 10 minutes
every hour or so depending upon the amount of gas in the tank.
• To protect yourself from frostbite and hypothermia use the woolen items and blankets to keep warm.
With so many fire extinguishers to choose from, selecting the
proper one for your home can be a task. Everyone should have at least one fire
extinguisher at home, but it's just as important to ensure you have the proper
type of fire extinguisher. Fire protection experts recommend one for the
kitchen, one for the garage and workshop.
Location, location, location! Having a fire
extinguisher is one thing, having it handy in case of an emergency, is another.
It is recommended to have at least one fire
extinguisher on each floor of your home. Also, keep them in plain sight and no
more than five feet above the floor. Do not put them in closets because that
will cost you valuable time when you are reaching for it. And even though a
fire extinguisher may not match your décor, do not put it behind curtains or
The most important places to have a fire
extinguisher are in areas that are more susceptible to fire. These areas are
the kitchen and the garage.
Kitchen: According to U.S. Fire Administration statistics, the kitchen is
the place where fires most often start. If you have a fire extinguisher in the
kitchen, most grease fires can be contained. Do not put the fire extinguisher near
the stove as it will be out of your reach if the fire is on the stovetop. You
should not have to risk burns just to reach your extinguisher. Therefore, the
best place to put the fire extinguisher is by the door of the kitchen so you
have easy access to it.
Garage: It is a good idea to keep a fire extinguisher here because in
most homes, this is the place we use as storage. Often, leftover paints,
solvents, and building materials will be piled up without a second thought.
Again, the best location to mount the fire extinguisher is by the door.
Inspect fire extinguishers at least once a month (more often in severe
Fire extinguisher maintenance is important for everyone’s safety.
You must ensure that:
extinguisher is not blocked by equipment, coats or other objects that
could interfere with access in an emergency.
pressure is at the recommended level. On extinguishers equipped with a
gauge (such as that shown on the right), the needle should be in the green
zone - not too high and not too low.
nozzle or other parts are not hindered in any way.
pin and tamper seal (if it has one) are intact.
are no dents, leaks, rust, chemical deposits and/or other signs of
abuse/wear. Wipe off any corrosive chemicals, oil, gunk etc. that may have
deposited on the extinguisher.
Some manufacturers recommend shaking your dry
chemical extinguishers once a month to prevent the powder from
Fire extinguishers should be pressure tested (a
process called hydrostatic testing) after a number of years to ensure that the
cylinder is safe to use. Consult your owner's manual, extinguisher label or the
manufacturer to see when yours may need such testing.
If the extinguisher is damaged or needs
recharging, replace it immediately!
IMPORTANT: Recharge all extinguishers
immediately after use regardless of how much they were used.
How it Works
At the top of the cylinder, there is a smaller cylinder filled with compressed
gas. A release valve acts as a locking mechanism and prevents this gas from
escaping. When you pull the safety pin and squeeze the lever, the lever pushes
on an actuating rod which presses the valve down to open a passage to the
nozzle. The compressed gas is released, applying a downward pressure on the
fire-extinguishing material. This pushes the material out the nozzle with high
amounts of pressure. Although the temptation is to aim the extinguisher at the
flames, the proper way to use the extinguisher is to aim it directly at the
fuel. Before using your fire extinguisher, be sure to
read the instructions before it's too late. Although there are many different types
of fire extinguishers, all of them operate in a similar manner. A
typical fire extinguisher contains 10 seconds of extinguishing power. This
could be less if it has already been partially discharged. Always read the
instructions that come with the fire extinguisher beforehand and become
familiarized with its parts. It is highly recommended by fire prevention
experts that you get hands-on training before operating a fire extinguisher.
Most local fire departments offer this service.
Once the fire is out, don't walk away! Watch the
area for a few minutes in case it re-ignites. Recharge the extinguisher
immediately after using it.
Pull the Pin at
the top of the extinguisher. The pin releases a locking mechanism and will
allow you to discharge the extinguisher.
Aim at the base of the fire, not the flames. This is important - in order to put out the
fire, you must extinguish the fuel.
Squeeze the lever slowly. This will release the extinguishing agent in the extinguisher.
If the handle is released, the discharge will stop.
Sweep from side to side. Using a sweeping motion, move the fire extinguisher back and
forth until the fire is completely out. Operate the extinguisher from a safe
distance, several feet away, and then move towards the fire once it starts to
diminish. Be sure to read the instructions on your fire extinguisher -
different fire extinguishers recommend operating them from different
distances. Remember: Aim at the base of the fire, not at the flames!!!!
Fire extinguishers are divided into four
categories, based on different types of fires. Each fire extinguisher also has
a numerical rating that serves as a guide for the amount of fire the
extinguisher can handle. The higher the
number, the more firefighting power.
Class A extinguishers are for ordinary combustible materials such as
paper, wood, cardboard, and most plastics. The numerical rating on these
types of extinguishers indicates the amount of water it holds and the amount
of fire it can extinguish. Geometric symbol (green triangle)
Class B fires involve flammable or combustible liquids such as
gasoline, kerosene, grease, and oil. The numerical rating for class B
extinguishers indicates the approximate number of square feet of fire it can
extinguish. Geometric symbol (red square)
Class C fires involve electrical equipment, such as appliances, wiring,
circuit breakers and outlets. Never
use water to extinguish class C fires - the risk of electrical shock is far
too great! Class C extinguishers do not have a numerical rating. The C
classification means the extinguishing agent is non-conductive. Geometric
symbol (blue circle)
Class D fire extinguishers are commonly found in a chemical laboratory.
They are for fires that involve combustible metals, such as magnesium,
titanium, potassium and sodium. These types of extinguishers also have no numerical
rating, nor are they given a multi-purpose rating - they are designed for
class D fires only. Geometric symbol (Yellow Decagon)
Class K fire extinguishers are for fires that involve cooking oils,
trans-fats, or fats in cooking appliances and are typically found in
restaurant and cafeteria kitchens. Geometric symbol (black hexagon)
Fire needs fuel, oxygen, and heat in order to burn. In simple
terms, fire extinguishers remove one of these elements by applying an agent
that either cools the burning fuel, or removes or displaces the surrounding
Fire extinguishers are filled with water or a
smothering material, such as CO2. By pulling out the safety pin and depressing
the lever at the top of the cylinder (the body of the extinguisher), this
material is released by high amounts of pressure.
When selecting the appropriate type of fire
extinguisher, it is important to think about extinguishing agents. Each class
of fire is best fought by a specific extinguishing agent. You will find a color-coded box on your fire
extinguisher identifying which classes of fire it can be used for, and the type
of fire extinguishing agent it contains.
The following is a list of commonly used fire
extinguishing systems and their corresponding classes of fire. The classes are
indicated in parentheses such as (A, B, C):
Multi-Purpose Dry Chemical (A, B, C)
A dry chemical agent called mono ammonium phosphate. The chemical is
non-conductive and can be mildly corrosive if moisture is present. In order to
avoid corrosion, it is necessary to scrub and thoroughly cleanup the contacted
area once the fire is out. A dry chemical fire extinguisher is usually used in
schools, general offices, hospitals, homes, etc.
Regular Dry Chemical (B, C)
A dry chemical agent called sodium bicarbonate. It is non-toxic, non-conductive
and non-corrosive. It is easy to cleanup, requiring only vacuuming, sweeping or
flushing with water. Extinguishers with sodium bicarbonate are usually used in
residential kitchens, laboratories, garages, etc.
Carbon Dioxide (B, C)
Carbon dioxide removes oxygen to stop a fire but has limited range. It is
environmentally friendly and leaves no residue, so cleanup is unnecessary.
Extinguishers with carbon dioxide are usually used in contamination-sensitive
places such as computer rooms, labs, food storage areas, processing plants,
Halotron (A, B, C)
A vaporizing liquid that is ozone friendly and leaves no residue. Because it
requires no cleanup, fire extinguishers with halotron are ideal for computer
rooms, telecommunication areas, theaters, etc.
Foam (A, B)
Foam floats on flammable liquids to tame the fire and helps prevent reflashes.
To cleanup the affected area, it must be washed away and left to evaporate.
Fire extinguishers with foam are usually used in garages, homes, vehicles,
Purple K Dry Chemical (B, C)
A dry chemical called potassium bicarbonate. It is non-conductive and
non-corrosive. Clean up requires vacuuming, sweeping or flushing with water.
Extinguishers with potassium bicarbonate are usually used in military
facilities, oil companies, vehicles, etc.
The most common agent is
water; however, it cannot be used for class B or C fires because it is conductive.
Water-based fire extinguishers are usually used in stockrooms, schools,
Wet Chemical fire extinguishers (K)
The potassium acetate based agent discharges as a fine mist which forms a soapy
foam that suppresses any vapors and steam or the risk of fire reflash as it
extinguishes the fire. Class K fire extinguishers can usually be found in
commercial cooking areas such as restaurants and cafeterias.
Class of Fire
Type of Extinguisher (Extinguishing Agent)
(e.g. trash, wood, paper, cloth)
Water; chemical foam; dry chemical*
(e.g. oils, grease, tar, gasoline, paints, thinners)
Carbon dioxide (CO2); halon**; dry chemical;
aqueous film forming foam (AFFF)
(e.g. live electrical equipment)
CO2; halon; dry chemical
(e.g. magnesium, titanium)
Dry powder (suitable for the specific
combustible metal involved)
(e.g. cooking oils; animal fats, vegetable fats)
Wet chemical (Potassium acetate based)
* Dry chemicals, CO2 and halon can be used on
Class A fires, but may not be effective on their own. They need to be
supplemented with water.
** Halon extinguishers are no longer made but
some may still be in use. Dangerous gases are formed when halon is used to put
out fires. Wear proper respiratory equipment, particularly in enclosed spaces.
After use, do not allow anyone to enter the area until it has been well
1. Encourage use of correct terminology and proper voice cadence.
2. Eliminate distractions in the operational area.
3. Obtain and use airport diagrams. Use the FAA runway safety website to find airport diagrams for all airports.
4. Conduct "Clearing Turns" prior to entering ANY runway.
5. Maintain a sterile cockpit when taxiing.
6. Maintain appropriate Taxi speed.
7. Encourage pilots to have their "eyes out" when taxiing.
8. Encourage pilots to have a "heads up" policy when taxiing.
9. Attend safety seminars and programs on RUNWAY SAFETY.
10. Improve safety by teaching, advocating, stressing and understanding situational awareness.
11. Customize RUNWAY SAFETY presentations for targeted audiences such as pilot organizations, safety seminars, airport authorities, etc.
12. Cite specific airport RUNWAY SAFETY web pages.
13. Distribute RUNWAY SAFETY materials to every aviation entity.
14. Package and distribute runway safety materials to: Flight Schools, Flight Safety International, Maintenance Centers, Aircraft Manufacturers, etc.
15. Realize that every airport is unique and presents its own set of RUNWAY SAFETY challenges.
16. Stay alert; stay alive.
17. Declare war on errors; make it everyone's responsibility.
driving, flying or sitting in your home, you are exposed to carbon monoxide.
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly lighter than
air. It is toxic to humans and animals when encountered in higher
concentrations, although it is also produced in normal animal metabolism in low
quantities, and is thought to have some normal biological functions. In the
atmosphere it is short lived and spatially variable.
The most common symptoms of
carbon monoxide poisoning may resemble other types of poisonings and
infections, including symptoms such as headache, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, fatigue, and a feeling of weakness. Affected families
often believe they are victims of food poisoning. Infants may be irritable and
feed poorly. Neurological signs include confusion, disorientation, visual
disturbance and seizures.
Some descriptions of carbon
monoxide poisoning include retinal hemorrhages, and an abnormal cherry-red
blood hue. In most clinical diagnoses these signs are seldom noticed. One
difficulty with the usefulness of this cherry-red effect is that it corrects,
or masks, what would otherwise be an unhealthy appearance, since the chief
effect of removing deoxygenated hemoglobin is to make an asphyxiated person
appear more normal, or a dead person appear more lifelike, similar to the
effect of red colorants in embalming fluid. The "false" or
physiologic red-coloring effect in anoxic CO-poisoned tissue is related to the meat-coloring
commercial use of carbon monoxide, discussed below.
Exposures to carbon monoxide may
cause significant damage to the heart and central
nervous system. Carbon
monoxide may have severe adverse effects on the fetus of a pregnant woman.
monoxide poisoning is the
most common type of fatal air poisoning in many countries. Carbon monoxide is
colorless, odorless, and tasteless, but highly toxic. It combines with hemoglobin to produce carboxyhemoglobin, which is ineffective for delivering oxygen to
bodily tissues. Concentrations as low as 667 ppm may cause up to 50% of the body's
hemoglobin to convert to carboxyhemoglobin. A level of 50% carboxyhemoglobin
may result in seizure, coma, and fatality. In the United States, the OSHA limits long-term workplace exposure levels above 50 ppm.
In closed environments, the
concentration of carbon monoxide can easily rise to lethal levels. On average,
170 people in the United States die every year from carbon monoxide produced by
non-automotive consumer products. However, according to the Florida Department
of Health, "every year more than 500 Americans die from accidental
exposure to carbon monoxide and thousands more across the U.S. require
emergency medical care for non-fatal carbon monoxide poisoning" These
products include malfunctioning fuel-burning appliances such as furnaces,
ranges, water heaters, and gas and kerosene room heaters; engine-powered equipment such as
portable generators; fireplaces; and charcoal that is burned in homes and other
enclosed areas. The American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC)
reported 15,769 cases of carbon monoxide poisoning resulting in 39 deaths in 2007.
In 2005, the CPSC reported 94 generator-related carbon monoxide poisoning
deaths. Forty-seven of these deaths were known to have occurred during power
outages due to severe weather, including Hurricane Katrina. Still others die from carbon monoxide produced
by non-consumer products, such as cars left running in attached garages. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that several thousand people go
to hospital emergency rooms every year to be treated for carbon monoxide
Pilots, be sure to inspect the CO
detector in the aircraft for currency and activation. When driving, crack a
window for ventilation and have a CO detector installed in your home.
Safety has been a huge focus area of the past couple of years. The success of our program has largely reduced the number of controllable mishaps, reducing exposure of the risk to our members, and greatly reducing our repair and replacement expenses. Our safety systems technology continues to improve, making our scorecard easier to view and allowing our focus to adjust as our organization evolves. There is always room for improvement as we keep a lookout for ways to improve. The safety management program has grown tremendously by gathering, and analyzing more data than ever before. As a result we are better able to predict when and where the next mishap may occur.
Bodily injuries continue to dominate CAP mishaps. However the focus on preventing them has not been proportionate to the rate at which they occur, they have the highest frequency of occurrence during cadet activities. It comprises 75% of all mishaps in the data base and cadets typically make up the majority of those bodily injury mishaps. PT injuries occur largely because of improper execution, wearing the wrong footwear in the shuttle run and not done on approved surfaces. This results in the twisting or spraining of ankles and/or knees, slipping, falling, and skinning of knees and elbows.
This past year, bodily injury mishaps have been largely related to lack of situational awareness, improper execution of task or exercise, and most concerning are pre‐existing conditions. The pre‐existing conditions mean the member and/or parents were aware of the injury or illness, and failed to notify activity or unit leadership. Participation aggravates the undisclosed condition and may have a negative impact on CAP members and staff. This puts the member at risk and potentially distracts or could result in injury or illness to other CAP members.
These pre-existing conditions, ranged from short‐term concussions and joint injuries suffered in school sports to chronic diseases requiring life- saving medications. However, leaders are accommodating injured members, as opposed to sending them home for appropriate rest. That puts the liability on CAP because they tend to shy away from the difficult guidance of telling someone they need to take a break. It has also been noticed that injuries in actual missions have been minimal, possibly from an increased situational awareness during missions. This is why we require Operational Risk Safety briefings and education about the possibility of injury in all areas of operation. We need to think of the outcome before executing the task, this is a basic leadership trait in planning and strategy.
Courtesy of Nat’l safety
any members who need to get current on their Safety Briefing before
their regular meeting, missed the meeting, any CAP activity, or used up
all of the safety briefings that National has put out, there is a quick
solution to that.
Just go to the Ohio Wing web site scroll down to Safety (on the left
hand side of the page) click on that and you will see the link, click
that and it will bring up a briefing for you to read, answer the
questions and submit, it will then be recorded and you will again be
current.(You must sign in with your CAP ID)
Remember if you are NOT CURRENT you MAY NOT participate in any CAP functions until CURRENCY is met.
if you are not Safety Current, E-Services will automatically remove
your name from the Flight Release Officer (FRO) and Incident Commander
(IC) lists posted in WMIRS and you MAY NOT serve in either capacity
until you are again safety current.
Any questions please contact myself or Lt Col Yarbrough (Asst OHWG/SE)
Lori Starman Capt. CAP
SAFETY BRIEFING TORNADOES - Part 2
Tornadoes are very common in many parts of the country, and they can
occur anywhere, and in any season of the
year. They are most common in the Midwest in the summer. Following are some helpful
tips about these potent storms.
I. Keep an emergency stock of tools in
the safest place to wait out a tornado. These might include:
(a) flashlights and fresh supply of
(b) crowbar, hammer, pick, shovel,
pliers, screwdriver, small hydraulic jacks
(c) can you think of other items?
2. Mobile home occupants should have
their homes professionally tied down.
3. Bring portable furniture,
equipment, and pets inside on a day when thunderstorms are expected.
IF TORNADO WARNING IS
1. Stay inside your
2. Immediately go to the lowest level
in the building, preferably a basement. Seek out an interior hallway or small interior
room away from windows.
3. Crouch under a heavy table, desk,
4. If there is no suitable heavy
furniture, crouch and brace yourself against an interior doorway or corner, where the structure
5. Leave a mobile home before the
storm hits and go promptly to a community shelter.
6. In a store or office building,
don't stampede toward the exits. Move away from windows, and generally stay on
the same floor. Do NOT use the elevator. Crouch under the heaviest piece of
furniture you can find.
7. On foot, go inside the nearest
sturdy building. If there is no time to enter a building then crouch next to
8. If there are no sturdy buildings
nearby then lie flat in the nearest ditch, ravine, or culvert. Cover your head
with your hands and arms. Protect yourself from flying debris.
9. In a vehicle, do NOT try to outrun
the tornado. Leave the vehicle and follow the above directions.
AFTER A TORNADO:
1. Treat the injured to the extent you
have been trained. Remember the Civil Air Patrol prohibition against coming into
contact with the body fluids of others.
2. Call for professional medical
assistance, as appropriate.
3. Do NOT attempt to move severely
injured persons unless they are in immediate danger of further injury, which
can be alleviated by moving them
4. Use phones only to report true
5. Do NOT use candles, matches, or
fire in any form in case there is a gas leak.
6. Rely on flashlights.
7. Call trained technicians if utility
lines are ruptured.
8. Use battery-powered radios for
information and instructions.
9. Wear heavy shoes and gloves for
walking over and removing glass and debris.
10. Do not exert yourself, and spare
yourself needless injury, and work in the company of capable adults, in case
you need help or assistance.